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Scientific writing has two goals: to share with the reader of the latest developments in a specific field, and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic writing research paper sample

  • Academic writing within the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most regularly in the shape of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly stick to the IMRAD model, which stands for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such since the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a synopsis associated with the material that is subsequent.
  • The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and performance measures. For an original study, when, where, and just how the research was conducted, what materials were utilized, and who had been included in the study groups should all be included.
  • In describing the outcome, the writer will include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the solution to the research question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or perhaps not proven.
  • The discussion section should analyze the results, state why they matter, contextualize them in relation to existing research, and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capability to perceive an interest without having to be affected by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on an interest.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation of the materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to answer questions and identify patterns. Writing during these disciplines often takes the form of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    For example, in an environmental-science lab report, a student might analyze research leads to address or clarify a certain scientific development or question:

    “This study is designed to identify levels of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a stretch that is three-mile of Columbia River, that is an area notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples bought out a period that is two-year various locations within the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high degrees of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. When you look at the study, we examine the partnership between salmon population plus the persistence of those compounds.”

    Scientific papers require significant amounts of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing could be difficult, but academic conventions provide a common template for communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing into the sciences seeks to describe complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes authorial bias. In addition it includes components of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, as well as other forms of scientific writing must be precise in order to provide results which can be reproduced and tested.

    Attempt to use simple words and sentences. Some students try to make their work sound more intellectual making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In fact, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions which can be still understandable to a lay audience. Don’t attempt to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted academic writing. Instead, write as simply and clearly that you can. Precision is a key component of clarity.

    Within the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using language that is clear describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is vital. Don’t generalize—provide exact times, measurements, quantities, as well as other relevant data whenever feasible. Using precise, straightforward language to explain your projects can also be vital. This is not the right time or location for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, continues to be important: currently talking about the sciences doesn’t provide you with a pass to write sloppily.


    The sciences shoot for objectivity at each stage, from the procedures that are experimental the language utilized in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; as a result, this has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis must be testable, as well as your results must be reproducible.

    The necessity of objectivity in the sciences limits writers’ capacity to use rhetoric that is persuasive. However, it is still necessary to make a case that is strong the significance, relevance, and applicability of the research. Argumentative writing comes with a place in scientific papers, but its role is bound. You might use persuasive language in the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but avoid using it once you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students find it difficult to transition from 1 topic to the next. Transitions are very well worth mastering—they are the glue that holds your opinions together. Never assume that the reader will guess the relationships correctly between different subtopics; it really is your responsibility to describe these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Maintaining your chosen model in your mind whilst you write will help make sure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as for example bias and faulty causality. Researchers must account fully for their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can include cognitive bias (irrational thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some members of the intended sample more readily than others).

    The human body of a scientific paper generally consists of listed here sections: introduction (which may include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each element of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model could be the conventional structural approach to academic writing when you look at the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This might be included as part of the introduction, or it may stand as the own section.
    • The strategy section should explain how you collected and evaluated your computer data.
    • Should your project conducts an experiment or an data that is original, you should include an independent section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your results without reporting any findings that are new.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a scientific paper.
    • literature review: A synthesis associated with the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which include significant findings along with theoretical and methodological contributions to a topic that is particular.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that rely on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or absence of discovery) that arises from the scientific approach to investigation.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that induce a more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    The format for the body of the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods in the natural and social sciences. Generally, the physical body of the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This process is named IMRAD for short.

    These sections are usually separate, although sometimes the email address details are with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students maintain these divisions, being that they are still learning the conventions of writing inside their discipline. Most journals that are scientific the IMRAD format, or variations from it, and even advise that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Attempt to stay true every single section’s stated purpose. You can cite relevant sources when you look at the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources when it comes to introduction or literature review. The outcomes section should describe your results without discussing their significance, even though the discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any new findings. Think of each section as a course served at a dinner—don’t that is fancy the soup into the salad or add leftover scraps from the entree into the dessert!

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